Discovered in the 4th Century by St. Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, the "Title" was the wooden board on which Pontius Pilate had written the accusation of Christ's crucifixion: Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. This was written in three languages, Latin, the official language of the Roman Empire, Greek, the unofficial language of trade and commerce, and Hebrew, one of the languages used in Judea at the time of Christ (here written in in ancient form which is quite different than the square alphabet). The Latin on this title is the source of the INRI seen on many crucifixes today: Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum.
This replica is entirely hand carved and aged to match what the entire piece might look like today. The original title was split into three pieces and send to different churches. This replica measures about two feet long (although the original was said by Lipsius to be three feet long the remainder of the original in Rome seems to suggest that it was closer to two feet in length).
After being hid away for centuries, it was rediscovered in the 15th Century, and was still well preserved at this point. The original was said to be red ink on white wood, but by the 16th Century it had aged dramatically.